Quality

ATTACHEMENTS:

  1. Quality Policy TEH-CUT
  2. Quality Certificate TEH-CUT
  3. Quality Policy JEDINSTVO-PNO
  4. Quality Certificate JEDINSTVO-PNO
  5. Environment Policy
  6. Penetrant Testing Certificate MD
  7. Penetrant Testing Certificate GK
  8. Calibration Certificate CMM DEA
  9. Calibration Certificate CMM X-cell
  10. Lead Auditor Certificate ISO9001
  11. Lead Auditor Certificate NQA-1 (Nuclear Industry)
  12. Statistical Parameter ‘First Time Out’ – machining
  13. Current Parameter ‘First Time Out’- welding

Robust Quality System

Quality in our processes means equipment, competences, organization and auditing:

  • Equipment is renewed and maintained
  • Competences are gained through the years, and more and more specialized. They have to be renewed when operator is out of the specific process, and have to be gained by new employees
  • Organization is answering the question who are the best people for some function, and how to communicate with accurate and on-time information.
  • Audits are showing how the process answer to our objectives, and where we need to initiate changes in our equipment, competences and organization.

Quality in our products means:

  • Control of purchasing process, monitoring material certificates of steel and aluminium alloys
  • Control of special processes, like welding, heat treatment, anodization and similar, with insight to process specifications and testing results in sometimes very expensive laboratories. Such suppliers have to be audited.
  • In-process measurement and final measurement, using calibrated equipment and periodicaly verified. If outside laboratories are used for calibration, they have to be accredited for the scope of work, or if outside organizations are used, they have to work according to verified plan and be witnessed.
  • Control of internal non-conformances, investigating the root cause and implementing corrective actions.

Quality Methods

1. Standard Process Measurement

Measurement in the processes are standardized to enable continuous data collecting. Data are usually collected and processed automatically  (Job Dispo, Step, Nonconformance Log…), but there are some situations when discipline is needed in manual recording of some events or their parameters.   Importance of data collecting is in enabling to understand relationships in the processes, cause and consequence analysis, and initiating actions for improvement.

  PHASES TO EFFICEINT ORGANIZATION

DATA

Accurate-False
On-time- Late
Useful – Redundant

.
INFORMATION

Understanding the relationship
Presentation of the relationship

.
.
KNOWLEDGE

Understanding the cause
Understanding the importance

.
.
.
WISDOM

Understanding the principle which initiate the action


2. Statistical Process Control (SPC)

Monitoring the process through dimension measurement, calculating standard deviation and process capability Cpk.

   Graph

Monitoring the process over Yiled calculation as ‘First Time out’ parameter. Longterm Yield iz used for calculating the Process Sigma.

Long-term YieldProcess SigmaDefects per 1.000.000 products
99,9996663,4
99,985233
99,446,210
93,3366,807
84,12,5158,655
69,12308,538
50,01,5500,000


3. Sampling in the Process – Statistical Inspection

Statistical inspection is used in processes with large product quantity, or large number of characteristics. Used are mathematically proved methods which guaranty with 95% of probability that 95% of products is within specification. According to this methods different inspection plans are used, and one of the simplest is following:

Quantity in LotSampling Quantity Acceptable Bad Samples
Do 30100%0
31-40310
41-60380
61-80420
81-100450
101-180500
181-500550
> 500 601, new sampling
> 500600

4. Vertical and Horizontal Cut on the Product

We want to make sure that population of 1000 products is within specification. We take one product and go through all characteristics. We decide which characteristics are critical to quality: those in narrow tolerances, those which are difficult to produce, visual errors and product finishing. Vertical cut is finished with the decision which characteristics are critical to quality.

Then we choose, without bias, 60 products where we will inspect only characteristics critical to quality. If we find bad characteristic, we take new 60 products and check. If we don’t find error, the whole population is acceptable. If we find even one error, the whole population should be inspected for that error.

For horizontal cut we can use SPC results, and see which characteristics have bad Cp and Cpk, so probability they are out of specification is high.


5. Vertical and Horizontal Cut in the Process

In audit, wewant to make sure that all inspection operations are in place. We take one project and find out which inspection  operations are specific – checking the material certificates, checking the heat treatment results, measurement results, check-list for final project. From the material list we find out which parts have special alloys and heat treatment. We search for documents for all parts. Then we decide which parts are critical.

For critical parts, in 10 other projects, we check the documentation and if values are within specifications. If not, we search for records which correct the nonconformance. In horizontal cut we assure that implementation is without fault, which is the final prove of the organizational quality. This is the way to affirm that quality is not achieved by chance.


6. At Last, What is the Quality?

Objective of the quality is to give evidence that product is within specification.

More than that is to be organization convincing in statement that all products are within all required specifications. Every claim from the side of a customer is harmful for that credibility.

No organization works without errors. The point is to identify errors and stop the processes until products conform. Organization which will respect that, without taking into account internal costs and time delays, will not succeed. Organization must endeavour to minimise errors by removing their root causes.

The most common cause is ‘human factor’. Within it, hidden are the two root causes: lack of competences and  lack of attention. Sometimes, we can include lack of safety consciousness.

This is the reason why the role of quality is to work on competences and work on consciousness that attention, interest and motivation is the key of success. Earnest communication and awards are tools for motivation.

We have developed Human Performance Program (HuP) which starts with the sentence: ‘All people make errors’. Then we learn methods how to minimise errors.


7. Human Performance Program

Awareness is based on knowledge that human makes errors. The basic reasons for errors are following:

  •        Lack of knowledge or skills combined with attention (diagram)
  •        Lack of discipline to keep to the procedures, or uncomprehensive procedures
  •        Personal attitude that leads to the error

Graph 2

Personal attitudes which are not safe:

  • PRIDE – ‘Don’t insult my intelligence!’
  • FATALISTIC – ‘What’s the use?’ 
  • OVERCONFIDENCE – ‘I could do that in my sleep!’
  • SUMMIT FEVER – ‘We’re almost there!’ 
  • INVULNERABLE – ‘That can’t happen to me.’ 
  • POLLYANNA – ‘Nothing bad will happen.’
  • HEROIC – ‘I’ll get it done, hook or by crook!’      

How to behave at work to avoid errors? We have issued HuP cards for operators to remind them on critical phases in their job.  

Pre-Job Brief - 5 questionsPre-Job Brief
1. What information I received from college in previous shift?1. What are parallel activities? What is priority?
2. What are critical steps in the operation?2. Do I have concerns about any activity?
3. What errors can happen? What are the traps?3. What is expected result of today’s shift?
4. What is the worst scenario?4. What if things turn bad?
5. How can I prevent errors on product and in the process?5. What are today’s traps? Stress? Procedures? Tools?

Star Table (Transparent)

PEER Check - When?PEER Check - Steps
1. If the operation is new for me.1. Ask for experienced peer.
2. If error can cause severe consequences.2. Explain your problem.
3. If the task is not clear.3. Mutually decide what would be the correct step.
4. If I am facing unexpected result.4. Try out together.
5. If the risk for error is high.5. Conclude if the problem is resolved or ask for engineering help.


8. Maintaining Personal Safety at Work is Priority

  • Supplying the protective equipment and job organization in safe way
  • Recording the injuries
  •  Recording the events with or without consequences, which were violating safety in the organization

Quality Picture (11)
Quality Picture (2)


The slider below shows few of the pictures that represent our attention to details and our will to maintain constant quality.

  • Coordinate Measuring Machine
Coordinate Measuring Machine
Coordinate Measuring Machine

CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine)